Laser marking has become an essential technical advantage in the development of aviation industry
Since the birth of high-power laser devices in the 1970s, laser welding, laser cutting, laser drilling, laser surface treatment, laser alloying, laser cladding, laser rapid prototyping, laser direct forming of metal parts and more than a dozen applications.
Laser machining is the force, fire and electrical machining after a new processing technology, it can solve different materials processing, perfect and thoughtful technical problems, such as forming and refining since high power laser device was born of the 70s, has formed the laser welding, laser cutting, laser marking, laser doping dozens of applications such as process, compared with the traditional processing methods, Laser processing has more high-energy dense focus, easy to operate, high flexibility, high quality, energy conservation and environmental protection and other prominent advantages, rapid automotive, electronics, aerospace, machinery, ships, almost including all areas of the national economy has been widely used, known as the "manufacturing system common means of processing".
1.Laser cutting technology in the aerospace field of application
In the aerospace industry, laser cutting materials are: chin alloy, nickel alloy, chromium alloy, aluminum alloy, stainless steel, chin acid key, plastic and composite materials.
In the manufacture of aerospace equipment, the shell of the use of special metal materials, high strength, high hardness, high temperature resistant, ordinary cutting method is hard to finish the material processing, laser cutting is a kind of effective means of processing, can use laser cutting processing efficiency, the honeycomb structure, framework, wings, tail suspension plate, the helicopter main rotor, engine box and flame tube, etc.
Laser cutting generally use continuous output laser, but also useful high frequency carbon dioxide pulse laser. Laser cutting depth to width ratio is high, for non-metal, depth to width ratio can reach more than 100, metal can reach about 20；
Laser cutting speed is high, cutting chin alloy sheet is 30 times about the mechanical method, cutting steel plate is 20 times about the mechanical method；
Laser cutting quality is good. Compared with oxy-acetylene and plasma cutting methods, cutting carbon steel has the best quality. The heat affected zone of laser cutting is oxy-acetylene only.
2.Application of laser welding technology in aerospace field
In the aerospace industry, a lot of parts are welded with electron beam, because laser welding does not need to be done in a vacuum, laser welding is being used to replace electron beam welding.
For a long time, the connection between aircraft structural parts has been the use of backward riveting technology, the main reason is that the aluminum alloy used in aircraft structure is heat treatment reinforced aluminum alloy (i.e., high strength aluminum alloy), once the fusion welding, heat treatment strengthening effect will be lost, and intergranular cracks are difficult to avoid.
The adoption of laser welding technology overcomes such problems and greatly simplifies the manufacturing process of the aircraft fuselage, reducing the weight of the fuselage by 18% and the cost by 21.4% ~ 24.3%. Laser welding technology is a technological revolution in the aircraft manufacturing industry.
3.Application of laser drilling technology in aerospace field
Laser drilling technology is used in the aerospace industry to drill holes on instrument gem bearings, air-cooled turbine blades, nozzles and combustors. At present, laser drilling is limited to the cooling holes of stationary engine parts, because there are microscopic cracks on the surface of the holes.
The experimental study of laser beam, electron beam, electro chemistry, EDM drilling, mechanical drilling and punching is concluded by comprehensive analysis. Laser drilling has the advantages of good effect, strong versatility, high efficiency and low cost.
4.Application of laser surface technology in aerospace field
Laser cladding is an important material surface modification technology. In aviation, the price of spare parts for aero-engines is high, so in many cases it is cost-effective to repair parts.
However, the quality of repaired parts must meet the safety requirements. For example, when damage appears on the surface of an aircraft propeller blade, it must be repaired with some surface treatment technology.
In addition to the high strength and fatigue resistance required by the propeller blades, the corrosion resistance after surface repair must also be considered. Laser cladding technology can be used to repair 3D surface of engine blade.
5.Application of laser forming technology in aerospace field
The application of laser forming manufacturing technology in aviation is directly reflected in the direct manufacturing of titanium alloy structural parts for aviation and the rapid repair of aircraft engine parts.
Laser forming manufacturing technology has become one of the core new manufacturing technologies for large titanium alloy structural parts of aerospace defense weapons and equipment. The traditional manufacturing method has the disadvantages of high cost, long preparation time of forging mold, large amount of mechanical processing and low material utilization rate.